Document Type: Original Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD Candidate, Business Administration Department, National Central University, Chung-Li City, Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan.

2 Associate Professor of Marketing, Business Administration Department, National Central University, Chung-Li City, Tao-Yuan County, Taiwan.

Abstract

This current study aimed at investigating the effects of gender (male versus female) and age (younger
versus older) on consumer ethnocentrism and animosity in Indonesia in regard to eight opposed countries. Based on
the ANOVA test, the findings showed that female and young consumers have a higher political and economical
animosity; while female and old consumers tend to have higher ethnocentrism. The Indonesian consumers are very
ethnocentric; The United States of America and Malaysia found to be the two opposed countries with the highest
score of animosity. The economic animosity is higher than politic animosity in China and Taiwan as the opposed
countries. These findings can be utilized by marketers in designing marketing communication and segmentation

Keywords